Useful Informations

Proforma Invoice : It is the kind of invoice, which is issued in order to provide information about the types, quality, estimated prices and costs, sales terms of the goods to be sold to the purchaser and which mostly has the characteristics of an offer. 

Manifesto Cargo: It is a certificate, which is approved by the administrative authorities (Chambers of Commerce) and endorsed by the consulates of purchasing countries, demonstrating the country, in which a good is produced or made.

Free Zone: They are the locations bound to local administrative status excluded from the national customs boundaries. Tax laws and financial obligations may not be completely or partially implemented in these locations.

ATR Document: It a certificate used in terms of export or import of the goods from Turkey to a country, which is a member of the European Union, or from a country, which is a member of the European Union, to Turkey.

EUR 1 Document : EUR 1 certificate is a document used in the trade of Turkey with EFTA countries and in the trade the products within the scope of Free Trade Agreement initialized with the European Union on iron – steel products. 

T1: T System listed after T2 and TIR System from 3 Transit System used in the European Union is used in terms of ;
  
a)    Securing the goods coming out of the Union, 

b)    Securing the goods, which will receive payment from incentive system, when movement of the products of the Union is in question.

Cash Against Documents (CAD): It is a mode of payment, in which the importer applies to an authorized intermediary bank in its country and sends a consignment certificate to the mentioned bank after the exporter sends the goods and the delivery of this certificate is ordered to be returned to the importer after the import cost is paid.

Cash on Delivery : It is the payment of the cost of the goods exported after they are received by the exporter

Phytosanitary Certificate : It demonstrates that the plants and herbal products dispatched are free from all diseases and pests and it is a certificate of international validity used both in export and import customs.
 

TURKISH LAND BORDER GATES
 
KAPIKULE (Edirne)
Gate to Bulgaria
HAMZABEYLI(Edirne)
Gate to Bulgaria
IPSALA (Edirne)
Gate to Greece
SARP (Artvin)
Gate to Georgia
HABUR (Sirnak)
Gate to Iraq
CILVEGOZU (Hatay)
Gate to Syria
GÜRBULAK (Agri)
Gate to Iran
TURKGOZU (Ardahan)
Gate to Georgia
DILUCU (Igdir)
Gate to Iran
 


TURKISH RO-RO SERVICE ROUTES
 
Haydarpasa (Istanbul Asia)
-
Trieste ( TR – ITALY)
Cesme (Izmir)
-
Trieste (TR – ITALY)
Cesme (Izmir)
-
Ancona (TR – ITALY)
Tekirdag
-
Trieste (TR – ITALY)
Kumport (Istanbul Europe)
-
Trieste (TR – ITALY)
Zonguldak
-
Skodovsk (TR – UKRAINE)
Zonguldak
-
Evpatoria (TR – UKRAINE)
Samsun
-
Noworossisky (TR – RUSSIA)
Samsun
-
Ilyichevsky (TR – UKRAINE)
Trabzon
-
Sachi (TR - RUSSIA)
Mersin
-
Magosa (TR – T.R.N.C)

INTERNATIONAL PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET
 
A
ALFA
B
BRAVO
C
CHARLIE
D
DELTA
E
ECHO
F
FOXTROT
G
GOLF
H
HOTEL
I
INDIA
J
JULIETT
K
KILO
L
LIMA
M
MIKE
N
NOVEMBER
O
OSKAR
P
PAPA
Q
QUEBEC
R
ROMEO
S
SIERRA
T
TANGO
U
UNIFORM
V
VICTOR
W
WHISKY
X
X-RAY
Y
YANKEE
Z
ZULU
TERMINOLOGY

Air Waybill - A non-negotiable contract for carriage of air transportation between an air carrier and a shipper.

All-Risk Insurance - The broadest form of coverage available, providing protection against all risk of physical loss or damage from any external cause. Does not cover loss or damage due to delay, inherent vice, inadequate packaging, or loss of market.

BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor) - An adjustment in shipping charges to offset price fluctuations in the cost of fuel. Also known as a Bunker Surcharge (B/S). The word Bunker refers to fuel storage containers on a vessel.

Bill of Lading (B/L) - A document issued by a common carrier to a shipper that serves as:

A receipt for the goods delivered to the carrier for shipment. A definition of the contract of carriage of the goods.

A Document of Title to the goods described therein.
This document is generally not negotiable unless consigned "to order."
Bill of Lading, On Board - A bill of lading acknowledging that the relative goods have been received on board a specified vessel.

Bill of Lading, Order - A negotiable bill of lading. There are two types:

A bill drawn to the order of a foreign consignee, enabling him to endorse the bill to a third party.
A bill of lading drawn to the order of the shipper and endorsed by him either "in blank" or to a named consignee. The purpose of the latter bill is to protect the shipper against the buyer's obtaining the merchandise before he has paid or accepted the relative draft.
Bonded Warehouse - A warehouse authorized by customs for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.

Break-bulk Vessel - A vessel designed to handle large or oversized cargo; generally cargo unsuitable for container stowage.

Bulk Cargo - Loose cargo that is loaded directly into a ship's hold.

Bulk Carrier - There are two types of bulk carriers, the dry-bulk carrier and the liquid-bulk carrier, better known as a tanker. Bulk cargo is a shipment such as oil, grain, or one which is not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed and is loaded without counting or marking.

CAD (Cash Against Documents) - A method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given to the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller.

CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor) - A surcharge on freight charges by a carrier to offset foreign currency fluctuations.

Cargo Insurance - Insurance to protect the financial interest of the owner of the cargo in the event of a loss during transportation. 

Carnet - A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries without paying duties or posting bonds. All of the goods traveling under a Carnet must be returned to the origin country to avoid penalties.

Carrier - Any person who, through a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway, or by a combination of modes.

Certificate of Manufacture - A document used under a letter of credit containing an affidavit that goods have been manufactured and are being held for the account and risk of the buyer. 

Certificate of Origin - A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. It is used for customs or foreign exchange purposes or both. Certificates of Origin are commonly certified by an official organization in the country of origin such as a consular office or a chamber of commerce.

CFS (Container Freight Station) - The term CFS at loading port means the location designated by carriers for the receiving of cargo to be loaded into containers by the carrier. At discharge or destination ports, the term CFS means the bonded location designated by carriers for devanning of containerized cargo.

CFS/CFS (Pier to Pier) - The term CFS/CFS refers to cargo delivered at origin in less-than-containerload quantities to a container freight station (CFS) to be loaded into containers and to be unloaded from the container at destination CFS.

CFS Charge (Container Freight Station Charge) - The charge assessed for services performed at the origin or destination for loading or unloading of cargo into/from containers at a CFS.

CFS Receiving Services - The service performed at the loading port in receiving and packing cargo into containers from CFS to CY or shipside. 

Chargeable Weight - Rate for airfreight goods where dimensional weight factor exceeds the actual weight of the cargo.

Charter - Originally meant a flight where a shipper contracted hire of an aircraft from an air carrier, but has usually come to mean any non-scheduled commercial service.

Chassis - A rectangular steel frame, supported by springs and wheeled axles constructed to accept mounting of containers for over-the-road transport.

CIA (Cash in Advance) - A method of payment for goods whereby the buyer pays the seller prior to shipping the goods.

Classification - A term for the determination of the correct tariff number in a Customs tariff for admissibility and duty purposes. 

Combination Vessels - A type of ship that accommodates both container and break-bulk cargo. It can be either self-sustaining or non-self sustaining. Also known as a Container/Break-bulk Vessel.

Commercial Invoice - Receipt for a transaction and or goods purchased (invoice) indicating the sender or seller and the receiver or purchaser. A commercial invoice should contain an itemized list of the merchandise with the complete description of goods with their unit value and extended total value. Depending on the Customs requirements of the destination country, there may be additional requirements, statement or clauses that must appear as well.

Conference - A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates.

Confirmed Letter of Credit -

Consignee - The individual or company to whom a seller or shipper sends merchandise and who, upon presentation of necessary documents, is recognized as the merchandise owner for the purpose of declaring and paying customs duties.

Consignor - A term used to describe any person who consigns goods to himself or to another party in a bill of lading or equivalent document. A consignor might be the owner of the goods, or a freight forwarder who consigns goods on behalf of his principal.

Consolidated Shipment - A method of shipping whereby an agent (freight forwarder or consolidator) combines individual consignments from various shippers into one shipment made to a destination agent, for the benefit of preferential rates. (Also called "groupage") The consolidation is then de-consolidated by the destination agent into its original component consignments and made available to consignees. Consolidation provides shippers access to better rates than would be otherwise attainable.

Consolidator - An agent who brings together a number of shipments for one destination to qualify for preferential rates.

Consular Documents - Special forms signed by the consular office of a country to which cargo is destined.

Consular Invoice - A document required by some countries describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official, a consular invoice is used by the country's customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of the shipment.

Date Draft - A draft that matures in a specified number of days after issuance without regard to date of acceptance.

DDC - Destination Delivery Charge.

DDP (Delivered Duty Paid) - Also known as "free domicile" or "free house."

DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) - This reflects the emergence of "door-to-door" intermodal or courier contracts or carriage where only the destination customs duty and taxes (if any) are paid by consignee.

Dead Freight - Freight charges paid by the charterer of a vessel for the contracted space which is left partially unoccupied.

Deck Cargo - Cargo carried on deck rather than stowed under deck. On-deck carriage is required for certain commodities, such as explosives.

Demurrage - A penalty for exceeding free time allowed for loading or unloading at a pier or freight terminal. Also a charge for undue detention of transportation equipment or carriers in port while loading or unloading.

Density - Weight units per unit of volume.

Dim Weight (Dimensional Weight) - An airfreight term used to describe the results of computing the chargeable weight from the cubic measurement of a shipment. 

Draft - An unconditional order in writing from one person (the Drawer) to another (the Drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named drawer on presentation or on a fixed date.

Drawee - The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount to the drawer.

EDI or EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport) - From the United Nations-backed electronic data interchange standards body, this is a set of standards that are used to define data sets in certain documents to standardize them for electronic transmission from one format to another.

Endorsement in Blank

Commonly used on a bank check, an endorsement in blank is an endorsement to the bearer. It contains only the name of the endorser and specifies no particular payee.
Also, a common means of endorsing bills of lading dawn to the order of the shipper. The bills are endorsed "For..."
Export License - A document secured from a government, authorizing a shipper to export a specific quantity of a particular commodity to a certain country. An export license is often required when a government places restrictions upon exports.

Export Trading Company - A corporation or other business entity organized and operated primarily for the purpose of exporting goods and services, or of providing export-related services to other companies.

FCL - Full Container Load, Full Car Load.

Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) - The U.S. Federal agency responsible for overseeing Ocean Carriers, Conferences, NVOCC's and Ocean Freight Forwarders (now called OTI's - Ocean Transportation Intermediaries) at ocean ports and inland waterways.

Feeder Vessel - A vessel that connects with a line vessel to service a port not directly served by that line vessel.

FEU - (Forty foot equivalent) Term normally used in ocean freight rate negotiations referring to the equivalent of two twenty foot ocean containers.

FIATA - International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations.

Flag Carrier - An airline or vessel of one national registry whose government gives it partial or total monopoly over international routes.

Flat Bed Chassis - A semi-trailer with a level bed and no sides or tops. The floor is a standard height from the ground.

Flat Rack - A platform designed with the flexibility to carry oversized cargo on board container vessels. It can be loaded from the sides and top, usually having adjustable or removable bulkheads at the front and back.

Force Majeure - The title of a standard clause found in marine contracts exempting the parties for non-fulfillment of their obligations by reasons of occurrences beyond their control, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.

Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) - A port designated by the government for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, and used for manufacturing within the zone and re-exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed only when the original goods or items manufactured from those goods pass from the zone into an area of the country subject to customs authority. Also called a Free Trade Zone.

Foreign Trade Zone Entry - A form declaring goods which are brought duty free into a Foreign Trade Zone for further processing or storage and subsequent exportation from the zone into the commerce of another country.

Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder - An independent business that dispatches shipments for exporters for a fee. The firm may ship by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize. Usually it handles all the services connected with an export shipment, including preparation of documents, booking cargo space, warehousing, pier delivery, and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and insurance services on behalf of a client. 

Free Out (FO) - The cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.

Free Port - A port which is a Foreign Trade Zone open to all traders on equal terms, or more specifically a port where merchandise may he stored duty-free pending re-export or sale within that country.

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) - A multilateral treaty intended to help reduce trade barriers and promote tariff concessions.

Gross Weight (GR Wt./GW ) - The full weight of a shipment, including containers and packaging materials.

Harmonized Code - An internationally accepted and uniform description system for classifying goods for customs, statistical, and other purposes.

Harmonized System (HS) - A key provision of the international trade bill, effective January 1, 1989, that established international uniformity for classifying goods moving in international trade under a single commodity code.

Hi (or High) Cube - Any container exceeding 102 inches in height.

House Air Waybill - An air waybill issued by an airfreight consolidator.

IATA - International Air Transport Association.

ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) - A specialized agency of the United Nations headquartered in Montreal. It promotes general development of civil aviation such as aircraft design and operation, safety procedures, and contractual agreements.

ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) - A non-governmental organization serving as a policy advocate on world business.

Igloo - A contoured structural container designed for use in main-deck carriage on narrow body aircraft.

Import License - A certificate issued by countries exercising import controls that permits importation of the articles stated in the license and often authorizes and/or releases the funds in payment of the importation.

In-Bond - A term use to describe cargo that has not been cleared by Customs to enter the commerce of a country.

INCOTERMS - The set of international standards for the uniform interpretation of common contract clauses in international trade. They’re formulated in concert with many international entities, comprises the latest revisions and should be used exclusively. 

Inducement - When steamship lines publish in their schedules the name of a port and the words "by inducement" in parentheses, this means the vessel will call at the port if there is a sufficient amount of profitable cargo available and booked.

Inland Carrier - A transportation line which hauls export or import cargo between ports and inland points.

Inspection Certificate - A document certifying that merchandise was in good condition, or in accordance with certain specifications immediately prior to shipment.

Integrated Carrier - A forwarder that uses its own aircraft, whether owned or leased, rather than scheduled airlines.

Interline - A mutual agreement between airlines to link their route network.

Intermodal - This refers to the capacity to go from ship to train to truck or the like. The term generally refers to containerized shipping or the capacity to handle containers across different modes of transport.

ISO 9000 - A series of voluntary international quality standards.

Joint Venture - A term of business partnership involving joint management and the sharing of risks and profits between enterprises sometimes based in different countries.

Just in Time (JIT) - The principle of production and inventory control in which goods arrive when needed for production or use.

Knot, Nautical - The unit of speed equivalent to one nautical mile: 6,080.20 feet per hour or 1.85 kilometers per hour.

L/C – Letter of Credit

LCL - Less than Container Load; Less than Car load.

L&D - Loss and Damage.

Legal Weight - The weight of the goods plus any immediate wrappings or packagings that are sold along with the goods, e.g., the weight of a tin can as well as its contents. 

Less than Truckload (LTL) - Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume or truckload minimum weight. 

Letter of Credit (L/C) - A document issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. Issued as revocable or irrevocable.

Letter of Credit, Confirmed - A letter of credit containing a guarantee on the part of both the issuing and advising banks of payment to the seller, provided the seller's documentation is in order and the terms of the letter of credit are met.

Lighter - An open or covered barge equipped with a crane and towed by a tugboat. Used mostly in harbors and inland waterways.

Liner - The word "liner" is derived from the term "line traffic," which denotes operation along definite routes on the basis of definite, fixed schedules. A liner thus is a vessel that engages in this kind of transportation, which usually involves the haulage of general cargo as distinct from bulk cargo.

Load Factor - Capacity used as against capacity available and expressed as a percentage.

Logistics Management - The efficient and cost-effective management of the physical movement of goods from supply points to final sale and the associated transfer and holding of such goods at various intermediate storage points.

Lo/Lo (Lift-On/Lift-Off) - Denotes the method by which cargo is loaded onto and discharged from an ocean vessel, which in this case is by the use of a crane.

LTL – Less than truck load

Manifest - A list of the goods being transported by a carrier.

Measurement Ton - The measurement ton (also known as the cargo ton or freight ton) is a space measurement, usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. Cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter it occupies.

MERCOSUR - A trade alliance between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia as associate members.

M/T or Metric Ton - 1000 Kilos

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) - A free trade agreement comprising the U.S.A., Canada, and Mexico.

National Carrier - A flag carrier owned or controlled by the state.

Net Terms - Free of charters' commission.

Net Weight (Actual Net Weight) - The weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings; e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can.

Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) - In the United States, a term for an FMC-Iicensed cargo consolidator of shipments in ocean trade, generally arranging for or performing consolidation and containerization functions. In trade lanes that do not include the U.S.A., NVOCC's operate under different rules and governmental licensing may not be a requirement.

NOS - Not Otherwise Specified.

NT - Net Tons.

NVOCC – Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier

OD - Outside Diameter.

Open Account - A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of payment such as a note, L/C, or other formal written evidence of indebtedness.

Open Policy - A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; e.g., it provides protection for all shipments in transit within a specified geographic trade area for a limited period of time. It is referred to as "open" because it does not require reporting of individual shipments. Summary or grouped reporting requirements vary with different policies.

O/R - Owner's Risk.

Part Charter - Where part of an airline's scheduled flight is sold as if it were a charter in its own right. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for split charter.

Part Load Charter - Where a part of an aircraft's load is discharged at one destination and a part of it at another. This is distinct from a split charter where a number of consignments are carried to the same destination. Inbound, part loads are treated as single entity charters under the regulations in most countries.

Particular Average (PA) - Partial loss or damage to goods.

Perils of the Sea - Fortuitous accidents or casualties peculiar to transportation on navigable water, such as sinking, collision of vessel, striking a submerged object, or encountering heavy weather or other unusual forces of nature.

Perishables - Any cargo that loses considerable value if it is delayed in transportation. This usually refers to fresh fruit and vegetables.

Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate - A certificate issued by an exporting countries' Department of Agriculture indicating that a shipment has been inspected and is free of harmful pests and plant diseases.

Pilferage - As used in marine insurance policies, the term denotes petty thievery-the taking of small parts of a shipment-as opposed to the theft of a whole shipment or large unit. Many ordinary marine insurance policies do not cover against pilferage, and when this coverage is desired it must be added to the policy.

Port Marks - An identifying set of letters, numbers, or geometric symbols followed by the name of the port of destination that are placed on export shipments. Foreign government requirements may be exceedingly strict in the matter of port marks.

Port of Discharge - A port where a vessel is off-loaded and cargo discharged.

Port of Entry - A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.

Port of Loading - A port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel, lashed, and stowed.

Prepaid Freight - Generally speaking, freight charges both in ocean and air transport may be either prepaid in the currency of the country of export or they may be billed collect for payment by the consignee in his local currency. On shipments to some countries, however, freight charges must be prepaid because of foreign exchange regulations of the country of import or rules of steamship companies or airlines.

Prima Facie - A Latin term frequently encountered in foreign trade that means "on first appearance." When a steamship company issues a clean bill of lading, it acknowledges that the goods were received "in apparent good order and condition" and this is said by the courts to constitute prima facie evidence of the conditions of the containers; that is, if nothing to the contrary appears, it must be inferred that the cargo was in good condition when received by the carrier.
Reefer - A refrigerated container, trailer or railcar for transporting perishables.

Ro/Ro (Roll-on/Roll-Off) Vessel - A ship designed to accommodate cargo that is rolled on and rolled off. Many Ro/Ro vessels can also accommodate containers and/or break-bulk cargo. 

Route - An established passage, from the point of departure to the terminating station.

Ship's Manifest - An instrument in writing containing a list of the shipments constituting the ship's cargo.

Shipment - Freight tendered to a carrier by one consignor at one place at one time for delivery to one consignee at one place on one bill of lading.

Shipper - Term used to describe an exporter (usually the seller).

Short-Shipped - Cargo manifested but not loaded.

Steamship Agent - A duly appointed and authorized representative in a specified territory acting on behalf of a steamship line or lines and attending to all matters relating to the vessels owned by his principals.

Steamship Line - A company usually having the following departments: vessel operations, container operations, tariff department, booking, outbound rates, inward rates, and sales. The company can maintain its own in-country offices to handle regional sales, operations, or other matters, or appoint steamship agents to represent them doing the same. Some lines have liner offices in several regions and appointed agents in others.

Stowage - The lading of cargo in a vessel in such a manner as to provide the utmost safety and efficiency for the ship and the goods it carries.

Strikes, Riots and Civil Commotion's - An insurance clause referring to loss or damage directly caused by strikers, locked-out workmen, persons' participation in labor disturbances, and riots of various kinds. The ordinary marine insurance policy does not cover this risk. Coverage against it can be added only by endorsement.

Sue & Labor Cause - A provision in marine insurance obligating the assured to do things necessary after a loss to prevent further loss and to act in the best interests of the insurer.

Tare Weight - The weight of packing and containers without the goods to be shipped.

Tariff - A general term for any listing of rates or charges. The tariffs most frequently encountered in foreign trade are: tariffs of international transportation companies operating on sea, land, and in the air; tariffs of international cable, radio, and telephone companies; and the customs tariffs of the various countries that list goods that are duty free and those subject to import duty, giving the rate of duty in each case. There are various classes of customs duties.

Temperature Controlled Cargo - Any cargo requiring carriage under controlled temperature.
TEU - A twenty-foot equivalent unit (6.1m). A standard unit for counting containers of various lengths and for describing container ship or terminal capacity. A standard 40' container (FEU) equals 2 TEUs.

THC (Terminal Handling Charge) - A charge for handling services performed at terminals.

Time Draft - A draft that matures in a certain number of days, either from acceptance or the date of the draft.

Ton - Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be a weight ton or a measurement ton.

Ton-Deadweight - The carrying capacity of the ship in terms of the weight in tons of the cargo, fuel, provisions, and passengers which a vessel can carry.

Tracking - A system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origin to destination.

Transshipment - The transfer of a shipment from one carrier to another in international trade, most frequently from one ship to another. Because the unloading and reloading of delicate merchandise may cause damage, transshipments are avoided whenever possible.

Valuation Charges - Additional transportation charges assessed shippers who declare a value of goods higher than the value of carriers' limits of liability.

Volume Weight - An international airfreight term used to describe the results of computing the chargeable weight from the cubic measurement of a shipment.

War Risk - The possible aggressive actions against a ship and its cargo by a belligerent government. This risk can be insured by a marine policy with a risk clause.

War Risk Insurance - Insurance issued by marine underwriters against war-like operations specifically described in the policy. In former times, war risk insurance was taken out only in times of war, but currently many exporters cover most of their shipments with war risk insurance as a protection against losses from derelict torpedoes and floating mines placed during former wars, and also as a safeguard against unforeseen warlike developments. In the U.S.A., war risk insurance is written in a separate policy from the ordinary marine insurance; it is desirable to take out both policies with the same underwriter in order to avoid the ill effects of a possible dispute between underwriters as to the cause (marine peril or war peril) of a given loss.

Warehouse Receipt - A receipt of commodities deposited in a warehouse identifying the commodities deposited. It is non-negotiable if permitting delivery only to a specified person or firm, but it is negotiable if made out to the order of a person or firm or to a bearer. Endorsement (without endorsement if made out to bearer) and delivery of a negotiable warehouse receipt serves to transfer the property covered by the receipt. Warehouse receipts are common documents in international banking.

Warehouse-to-Warehouse - A clause in marine insurance policy whereby the underwriter agrees to cover the goods while in transit between the initial point of shipment and the point of destination with certain limitations, and also subject to the law of insurable interest. The warehouse-to-warehouse clause was once extremely important, but marine extension clauses now often override its provisions.

Weight

Gross - The weight of the goods including packing, wrappers, or containers, both internal and external. The total weight as shipped.
Net - The weight of the goods themselves without the inclusion of any wrapper.
Tare - The weight of the packaging or container.
Weight/Measurement Ton - In many cases, a rate is shown per weight/measurement ton, carrier's option. This means that the rate will be assessed on either a weight ton or measurement ton basis, whichever will yield the carrier the greater revenue.
Weight Ton - Metric measure equals 1000 Kilograms; in English measure a short ton is 2000 pounds, a long ton is 2240 pounds.
Weight Load Factor - Payload achieved as against available capacity, expressed as a percentage. Cargo is frequently limited by volume rather than weight; load factors of 100 percent are rarely achieved.

With Average (WA) - A marine insurance term meaning that shipment is protected for partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a stated percentage.

With Particular Average (WPA) - An insurance term meaning that partial loss or damage of goods is insured. The damage generally must be caused by sea water, and many terms specify a minimum percentage of damage before payment. It may be extended to cover loss by theft, pilferage, leakage and breakage, or other perils depending on the nature of the cargo.

W/M - Weight and/or Measurement.
LOGISTICS ABBREVIATIONS
A2A
Airport to Airport
AMS
Automated Manifest System
A/R
Accounts Receivable
AWB
Air Waybill
B2B
Back to Back
BAF
Bunker Adjustment Factor
B-L
Bill Of Lading
BM
Branch Manager
C&V
Classification Value
C.O.D
Collect(cash)on Delivery
C/N
Credit Note
C/O
Certificate Of Origin
CAF or CAC
Currency Adjustment Factor
CAR
Commecial Activity Report
CES
Customs Exam Site
CF
Customs Form
CFS
Container Freight Station
CHG.WT
Chargeable Weight
CINV
Commercial Invoice
CLH
Clearing House
COB
Confirmd On Board
CST
Commodity Specialist Team
CY
Container Yard
D/N
Debit Note
D/O
Delivery Order
EDI
Electronic Data Interface
EAP
Enviromental Protection Agency
F&W
Fish& Wild
F2F
Foreign To Foreign
FCL
Full Container Load
FDA
Food&Drug Administration
FIATA
International Federation Of Freight Forwarders
FTL
Full Truck Load
G.O
General Order
GM
Genaral Manager
GSP
Generalized System Of Preferences
H
Height
HAWB
House Air Waybill
H-BL
House Bill Of Lading
HQ
Headquarter
HTS
Harmonized Tarif Schedules
IATA
International Air Transport Association
INV
Invoice
INET
Intranet
IV
Commercial Invoice Value
L
Length
LAN
Local Area Network
LC or L/C
Letter of Credit
LCL
Less Than Container Load
LTL
Less Than Truck Load
MAWB
Master Air Waybill
M-BL
Master Bill Of Lading
MID
Manufacturer Identification Number
MIS
Managed Information Systems
N/A
Not Applicable
NDC
Non-Dutiable Charge
NDV
Non-Dutiable Value
NSM
National Sales Manager
NVOCC
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier
O/H
On Hand
O-BL
Original Bill Of Lading
O/D
Overdue
P.O
Purchase Order
PINV
Proforma Invoice
PLT
Pallet
PNC
Preliminary Notice Of Claim
QMR
Quality Management Review
SED
Shippers Export Declaration
SOP
Standart Operating Procedures
UC
Unit Cost
ULD
Unit Loading Device
UN
United Nations
UP
Unit Price
VAT
Value-Added Tax
W
Width
WAN
Wide Area Network
WTO
World Tarde Organization
ZP
Zip Code
CLASSIFICATION AND LABELLING SUMMARY TABLES OF DANGEROUS GOODS

Dangerous goods are substances which are dangerous for transportation. 
All of these substances are divided by few classes by their danger levels;

CLASS 1 EXPLOSIVES

1.1 Explosives with a mass explosion hazard

1.2 Explosives with a severe projection hazard
1.3 Explosives with a fire, blast or projection hazard but not with mass explosion hazard.
1.4 Fire or projection hazard
1.5 May explode in fire

Ex: Nitroglycerin

CLASS 2 GASES WHICH ARE COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR DISSOLVED UNDER PRESSURE AS DETAILED BELOW

2.1 FLAMMABLE GAS
Gases which ignite on contact with an ignition source.

Ex: Hydrogen 
2.2 NON-FLAMMABLE GASES
Gases which are neither flammable nor poisonous.

Ex: Oxygen, Nitrogen
2.3 POISONOUS GASES
Gases liable to cause death or serious injury to human health if inhaled.

Ex: Chlorine

CLASS 3 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS   

3.1 HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS WITH A BOILING POINT BELOW 35°C. 

Ex:Carbon Disulfide

3.2 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS WITH A FLASHPOINT OF LESS THAN 23°C AND BOILING POINT ABOVE 35°C. 

Ex:Petrol, Acetone 

3.3 LIQUIDS WITH A FLASHPOINT ABOVE 23°C BUT NOT EXCEEDING 61 °C AND A BOILING POINT GREATER THAN 35°C. 

Ex: Kerosene

CLASS 4 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS

4.1 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS WHICH ARE EASILY IGNITED AND READILY COMBUSTIBLE.

Ex: Phosphorus, Matches

4.2 SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES. 

Ex: Aluminium Alkyls, White Phosphorus

4.3 SUBSTANCES WHICH EMIT A FLAMMABLE GAS WHEN WET OR REACT VIOLENTLY WITH WATER. 

Ex: Sodium, Calcium Carbide

          
CLASS 5 OXIDISING AGENTS & ORGANIC PEROXIDES

5.1 OXIDISING AGENTS OTHER THAN ORGANIC PEROXIDES.

Ex:Ammonium Nitrate, Hydrogen Peroxide

5.2 ORGANIC PEROXIDES, EITHER IN LIQUID OR SOLID FORM. 

Ex: Benzoyl Peroxides

          
CLASS 6 POISONOUS (TOXIC) AND INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

6.1A POISONOUS SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE LIABLE TO CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUS INJURY TO HUMAN HEALTH IF INHALED, SWALLOWED OR BY SKIN ABSORPTION.

Ex:Cyanides, Lead Salts

6.1B TOXIC SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE HARMFUL TO HUMAN HEALTH. 

Ex: Low toxicity pesticides

6.2 BIOHAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES. 

Ex: Pathology specimens.

CLASS 7 RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

Radioactive substances comprise substances or a combination of substances which emit radiation. 

Ex: Uranium, Radioactive substances,

CLASS 8 CORROSIVES SUBSTANCES

Substances which being solids or liquids may harm living tissue or damage equipment. 

8.1 ACIDS

8.2 ALKALI SUBSTANCES

8.3 DIFFERENT CORROSIVE AND CAUSTIC SUBSTANCES

Ex: Hydrochloric Acid

CLASS 9 MISCELLANEOUS DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES

Substances which present relatively low hazards. 

Ex: Aersols, Deodorants, Polyester Beads,
COUNTRY
PHONE CODE
Afghanistan
93
Albania
355
Algeria
213
American Samoa
1 684
Andorra
376
Angola
244
Anguilla
1 264
Antarctica
672
Antigua and Barbuda
1 268
Argentina
54
Armenia
374
Aruba
297
Australia
61
Austria
43
Azerbaijan
994
Bahamas
1 242
Bahrain
973
Bangladesh
880
Barbados
1 246
Belarus
375
Belgium
32
Belize
501
Benin
229
Bermuda
1 441
Bhutan
975
Bolivia
591
Bosnia and Herzegovina
387
Botswana
267
Brazil
55
British Virgin Islands
1 284
Brunei
673
Bulgaria
359
Burkina Faso
226
Burma (Myanmar)
95
Burundi
257
Cambodia
855
Cameroon
237
Canada
1
Cape Verde
238
Cayman Islands
1 345
Central African Republic
236
Chad
235
Chile
56
China
86
Christmas Island
61
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
61
Colombia
57
Comoros
269
Cook Islands
682
Costa Rica
506
Croatia
385
Cuba
53
Cyprus
357
Czech Republic
420
Democratic Republic of the Congo
243
Denmark
45
Djibouti
253
Dominica
1 767
Dominican Republic
1 809
Ecuador
593
Egypt
20
El Salvador
503
Equatorial Guinea
240
Eritrea
291
Estonia
372
Ethiopia
251
Falkland Islands
500
Faroe Islands
298
Fiji
679
Finland
358
France
33
French Polynesia
689
Gabon
241
Gambia
220
Gaza Strip
970
Georgia
995
Germany
49
Ghana
233
Gibraltar
350
Greece
30
Greenland
299
Grenada
1 473
Guam
1 671
Guatemala
502
Guinea
224
Guinea-Bissau
245
Guyana
592
Haiti
509
Holy See (Vatican City)
39
Honduras
504
Hong Kong
852
Hungary
36
Iceland
354
India
91
Indonesia
62
Iran
98
Iraq
964
Ireland
353
Isle of Man
44
Israel
972
Italy
39
Ivory Coast
225
Jamaica
1 876
Japan
81
Jordan
962
Kazakhstan
7
Kenya
254
Kiribati
686
Kosovo
381
Kuwait
965
Kyrgyzstan
996
Laos
856
Latvia
371
Lebanon
961
Lesotho
266
Liberia
231
Libya
218
Liechtenstein
423
Lithuania
370
Luxembourg
352
Macau
853
Macedonia
389
Madagascar
261
Malawi
265
Malaysia
60
Maldives
960
Mali
223
Malta
356
Marshall Islands
692
Mauritania
222
Mauritius
230
Mayotte
262
Mexico
52
Micronesia
691
Moldova
373
Monaco
377
Mongolia
976
Montenegro
382
Montserrat
1 664
Morocco
212
Mozambique
258
Namibia
264
Nauru
674
Nepal
977
Netherlands
31
Netherlands Antilles
599
New Caledonia
687
New Zealand
64
Nicaragua
505
Niger
227
Nigeria
234
Niue
683
Norfolk Island
672
North Korea
850
Northern Mariana Islands
1 670
Norway
47
Oman
968
Pakistan
92
Palau
680
Panama
507
Papua New Guinea
675
Paraguay
595
Peru
51
Philippines
63
Pitcairn Islands
870
Poland
48
Portugal
351
Puerto Rico
1
Qatar
974
Republic of the Congo
242
Romania
40
Russia
7
Rwanda
250
Saint Barthelemy
590
Saint Helena
290
Saint Kitts and Nevis
1 869
Saint Lucia
1 758
Saint Martin
1 599
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
508
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
1 784
Samoa
685
San Marino
378
Sao Tome and Principe
239
Saudi Arabia
966
Senegal
221
Serbia
381
Seychelles
248
Sierra Leone
232
Singapore
65
Slovakia
421
Slovenia
386
Solomon Islands
677
Somalia
252
South Africa
27
South Korea
82
Spain
34
Sri Lanka
94
Sudan
249
Suriname
597
Swaziland
268
Sweden
46
Switzerland
41
Syria
963
Taiwan
886
Tajikistan
992
Tanzania
255
Thailand
66
Timor-Leste
670
Togo
228
Tokelau
690
Tonga
676
Trinidad and Tobago
1 868
Tunisia
216
Turkey
90
Turkmenistan
993
Turks and Caicos Islands
1 649
Tuvalu
688
Uganda
256
Ukraine
380
United Arab Emirates
971
United Kingdom
44
United States
1
Uruguay
598
US Virgin Islands
1 340
Uzbekistan
998
Vanuatu
678
Venezuela
58
Vietnam
84
>Wallis and Futuna
681
West Bank
970
Yemen
967
Zambia
260
Zimbabwe
263

COUNTRY
A2
A3
NUMBER
 
AFGHANISTAN
AF
AFG
004
ALAND ISLANDS
AX
ALA
248
ALBANIA
AL
ALB
008
ALGERIA
DZ
DZA
012
AMERICAN SAMOA
AS
ASM
016
ANDORRA
AD
AND
020
ANGOLA
AO
AGO
024
ANGUILLA
AI
AIA
660
ANTARCTICA
AQ
ATA
010
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
AG
ATG
028
ARGENTINA
AR
ARG
032
ARMENIA
AM
ARM
051
ARUBA
AW
ABW
533
AUSTRALIA
AU
AUS
036
AUSTRIA
AT
AUT
040
AZERBAIJAN
AZ
AZE
031
BAHAMAS
BS
BHS
044
BAHRAIN
BH
BHR
048
BANGLADESH
BD
BGD
050
BARBADOS
BB
BRB
052
BELARUS
BY
BLR
112
BELGIUM
BE
BEL
056
BELIZE
BZ
BLZ
084
BENIN
BJ
BEN
204
BERMUDA
BM
BMU
060
BHUTAN
BT
BTN
064
BOLIVIA
BO
BOL
068
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
BA
BIH
070
BOTSWANA
BW
BWA
072
BOUVETISLAND
BV
BVT
074
BIRAZIL
BR
BRA
076
BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY
IO
IOT
086
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM
BN
BRN
096
BULGARIA
BG
BGR
100
BURKINA FASO
BF
BFA
854
BURUNDI
BI
BDI
108
CAMBODIA
KH
KHM
116
CAMEROON
CM
CMR
120
CANADA
CA
CAN
124
CAPE VERDE
CV
VPV
132
CAYMAN ISLANDS
KY
CYM
136
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
CF
CAF
140
CHAD
TD
TCD
148
CHILE
CL
CHL
152
CHINA
CN
CHN
156
CHRISTMAS ISLANDS
CX
CXR
162
COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS
CC
CCK
166
COLOMBIA
CO
COL
170
COMOROS
KM
COM
174
CONGO
CG
COG
178
CONGO, THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE
CD
COD
180
 
COOK ISLANDS
CK
COK
184
COSTA RICA
CR
CRI
188
COTE D’IVOIRE
CI
CIV
384
CROATIA
HR
HRV
191
CUBA
CU
CUB
192
CYPRUS
CY
CYP
196
CZECH REPUBLIC
CZ
CZE
203
DENMARK
DK
DNK
208
DJIBOUTI
DJ
DJI
262
DOMINICA
DM
DMA
212
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
DO
DOM
214
ECUADOR
EC
ECU
218
EGYPT
EG
EGY
818
EL SALVADOR
SV
SLV
222
EQUATORIAL GUINEA
GQ
GNQ
226
ERITREA
ER
ERI
232
ESTONIA
EE
EST
233
ETHIOPIA
ET
ETH
231
FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS)
FK
FLK
238
FAROE ISLANDS
FO
FRO
234
FIJI
FJ
FJI
242
FINLAND
FI
FIN
246
FRANCE
FR
FRA
250
FRENCH GUIANA
GF
GUF
254
FRENCH POLYNESIA
PF
PYF
258
FRENCH SOUTHERN TERRITORIES
TF
ATF
260
GAGON
GA
GAB
266
GAMBIA
GM
GMB
270
GEORGIA
GE
GEO
268
GERMANY
DE
DEU
276
GHANA
GH
GHA
288
GIBRALTAR
GI
GIB
292
GREECE
GR
GRC
300
GREENLAND
GL
GRL
304
GRENADA
GD
GRD
308
GUADELOUPE
GP
GLP
312
GUAM
GU
GUM
316
GUATEMALA
GT
GTM
320
GUERNSEY
GG
GGY
831
GUINEA
GN
GIN
324
GUINEA-BISSAU
GW
GNB
624
GUYANA
GY
GUY
328
HAITI
HT
HTI
332
HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD ISLANDS
HM
HMD
334
HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY STATE)
VA
VAT
336
HONDURAS
HN
HND
340
HONG KONG
HK
HKG
344
HUGARY
HU
HUN
348
ICELAND
IS
ISL
352
INDIA
IN
IND
356
INDONESIA
ID
IDN
360
IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF)
IR
IRN
364
IRAQ
IQ
IRQ
368
IRELAND
IE
IRL
372
ISLE OF MAN
IM
IMM
833
ISRAEL
IL
ISR
376
ITALY
IT
ITA
380
JAMAICA
JM
JAM
388
JAPON
JP
JPN
392
JERSEY
JE
JEY
832
JORDAN
JO
JOR
400
KAZAKHSTAN
KZ
KAZ
398
KENYA
KE
KEN
404
KIRIBATI
KI
KIR
296
KOREA, DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF
KP
PRK
408
 
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
KR
KOR
410
KUWAIT
KW
KWT
414
KYRGYZSTAN
KG
KGZ
417
LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
LA
LAO
418
LATVIA
LV
LVA
428
LEBANON
LB
LBN
422
LESOTHO
LS
LSO
426
LIBERIA
LR
LBR
430
LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA
LY
LBY
434
LIECHTENSTEIN
LI
LIE
438
LITHUANIA
LT
LTU
440
LUXEMBOURG
LU
LUX
442
MACAO
MO
MAC
446
MACEDONIA, FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC
MK
MKD
807
MADAGASCAR
MG
MDG
450
MALAWI
MW
MWI
454
MALAYSIA
MY
MYS
458
MALDIVES
MV
MDV
462
MALI
ML
MLI
466
MALTA
MT
MLT
470
MARSHALL ISLANDS
MH
MHL
584
MARTINIQUE
MQ
MTQ
474
MAURITANIA
MR
MRT
478
MAURITIUS
MU
MUS
488
MAYOTTE
YT
MYT
175
MEXICO
MX
MEX
484
MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF
FM
FSM
583
MOLDOVA, REPUBLIC OF
MD
MDA
498
MONACO
MC
MCO
492
MONGOLIA
MN
MNG
496
MONTENEGRO
ME
MNE
499
MONTSERRAT
MS
MSR
500
MOROCCO
MA
MAR
504
MOZANBIQUE
MZ
MOZ
508
MYANMAR
MM
MMR
104
NAMIBIA
NA
NAM
516
NAURU
NR
NRU
520
NEPAL
NP
NPL
524
NETHERLANDS
NL
NLD
528
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES
AN
ANT
530
NEW CALEDONIA
NC
NCL
540
NEW ZEALAND
NZ
NZL
554
NICARAGUA
NI
NIC
558
NIGER
NE
NER
562
NIGERIA
NG
NGA
566
NIUE
NU
NIU
570
NORFOLK ISLAND
NF
NFK
574
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
MP
MNP
580
NORWAY
NO
NOR
578
OMAN
OM
OMN
512
PAKISTAN
PK
PAK
586
PALAU
PW
PLW
585
PALESTINIAN TERRITORY, OCCUPIED
PS
PSE
275
PANAMA
PA
PAN
591
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
PG
PNG
598
PARAGUAY
PY
PRY
600
PERU
PE
PER
604
PHILIPPINES
PH
PHL
608
PITCAIRN
PN
PCN
612
POLAND
PL
POL
616
PORTUGAL
PT
PRT
620
PUERTO RICO
PR
PRI
630
QATAR
QA
QAT
634
REUNION
RE
REU
639
ROMANIA
RO
ROU
642
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
RU
RUS
643
RWANDA
RW
RWA
646
SAINT HELENA
SH
SHN
659
SAINT KITTS AND NEWS
KN
KNA
659
SAINT LUCIA
LC
LCA
662
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON
PM
SPM
666
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
VC
VCT
670
SAMOA
WS
WSM
882
SANMARINO
SM
SMR
674
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
ST
STP
678
SAUDI ARABIA
SA
SAU
682
SENEGAL
SN
SEN
686
SERBIA
RS
SRB
688
SEYCHELLES
SC
SYC
690
SIERRA LEONE
SL
SLE
694
SINGAPORE
SG
SGP
702
SLOVAKIA
SK
SVK
703
SLOVENIA
SI
SVN
705
SOLOMON ISLANDS
SB
SLB
090
SOMALIA
SO
SOM
706
fa
FIATA
WCA
UTİKAD
İMEAK DENİZ TİCARET ODASI
KALİTE YÖNETİM SİSTEMİ